PRINCIPLES OF MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY

Gaetano GUERRA PRINCIPLES OF MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY

0512400018
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY "ADOLFO ZAMBELLI"
EQF6
CHEMISTRY
2021/2022

OBBLIGATORIO
YEAR OF COURSE 2
YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2016
PRIMO SEMESTRE
CFUHOURSACTIVITY
540LESSONS
112EXERCISES
Objectives
THE COURSE AIMS TO GIVE BASIC CONCEPTS RELATED TO STRUCTURE, SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND TECHNOLOGY OF MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS. IT WILL GIVEN PARTICULAR ATTENTION TO POLYMERIC MATERIALS OFTHE EVERY DAY LIFE BUT ALSO TO POLYMERS IN ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES
Prerequisites
BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY, ORGANIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS
Contents
INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL DEFINITIONS: HOMOPOLYMERS AND COPOLYMERS. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF ARTIFICIAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS.

DISTRIBUTION OF MOLECULAR MASSES. NUNBER AVERAGE AND WEIGHT AVERAGE MOLECULAR MASSES. POLYDISPERSITY.

AMORPHOUS STATE. GLASS TRANSITION. SECOND ORDER THERMODYNAMIC TRANSITIONS. PARAMETERS RELEVANT TO GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE: CHEMICAL NATURE, MOLECULAR MASS, TOPOLOGICAL FEATURES, ADDITIVES.

CRYSTALLINE STATE: APERIODIC AND IDENTICAL MACROMOLECULES, PERIODIC MACROMOLECULES. CONDITIONS FOR CRYSTALLIZATION OF A PERIODIC POLYMER: CONSTITUTIONAL, CONFIGURATIONAL AND CONFORMATIONAL REGULARITY. FOLDING OF MACROMOLECULAR CHAINS. X-RAY DIFFRACTION OF POLYCRYSTALLINE ORIENTED AND UNORIENTED SAMPLES. MORPHOLOGY OF SEMICRYSTALLINE POLYMERS. MACROMOLECULAR SINGLE CRYSTALS. LAMELLAR MORPHOLOGY. SPHERULITIC MORPHOLOGY. OPTICAL MICROSCOPE WITH CROSS POLARIZERS. MORPHOLOGY OF FIBER. SHISH-KEBAB MORPHOLOGY .

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES. STRESS-STRAIN CURVES. RIGIDITY (MODULUS). RESISTANCE (STRESS AT BREAK). TOUGHNESS (ENERGY TO BREAK). DUCTILITY (ELONGATION). MECHANICS OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS. ANISOTROPY IN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES.

MAIN CLASSES OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS. AMORPHOUS AND SEMI-CRYSTALLINE THERMOPLASTICS. FIBRES. ELASTOMERS. THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS (AMORPHOUS, CRYSTALLINE AND IONIC RIGID PHASES). POLYELECTROLYTES. IONOMERS. MISCIBLE AND IMMISCIBLE BLENDS . COMPATIBILIZERS. THERMOSETS. COMPOSITES. NANOCOMPOSITES. POLYMER-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES.

POLYADDITION AND POLYCONDENSATION. CHAIN AND STEP POLYMERIZATIONS . RADICAL POLYMERIZATIONS (INITIATION, PROPAGATION, CHAIN TRANSFER AND TERMINATION). CATIONIC POLYMERIZATIONS (INITIATION, PROPAGATION, CHAIN TRANSFER AND TERMINATION). POLYMERIZATIONS ANIONIC. LIVING POLYMERIZATIONS. PREPARATION OF TRI-BLOCK SBS COPOLYMER. RELEVANCE OF BLOCK COPOLYMERS IN RECENT RESEARCH ON NANOTECHNOLOGY. CONDUCTION OF POLYMERIZATIONS. SURFACTANTS. EMULSION POLYMERIZATIONS: INDUSTRIAL ASPECTS. POLYMERIZATIONS WITH ZIEGLER-NATTA CATALYSTS. STRUCTURAL LAYER OF TICL3. CHIRAL COORDINATION OF PROPYLENE TO THE METAL. HOMOGENEOUS COORDINATED POLYMERIZATION. BRIDGED METALLOCENES AND WITH C2 SYMMETRY AND CS SYMMETRY. STEP POLYMERIZATIONS. DEPENDENCE OF THE DEGREE OF POLYMERIZATION BY STOICHIOMETRY AND CONVERSION. MAIN STEP POLYMERIZATIONS.

CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION: IR, NMR. CHARACTERIZATION OF MOLECULAR MASSES: VISCOSITY OF DILUTED SOLUTIONS, SIZE-EXCLUSION-CHROMATOGRAPHY (SEC), MALDI MASS SPECTROMETRY. THERMAL CHARACTERIZATION: DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY (DSC), THERMOGRAVIMETRY (TGA).MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATIONS: DYNANOMETER, DYNAMIC-MECHANICAL ANALYZER.
CHARACTERIZATION OF CRYSTAL PHASES: MEASUREMENT OF DENSITY, X-RAY DIFFRACTION.

GENERAL INFORMATION ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF POLYMERS

THECNOPOLYMERS. MEMBRANES.

BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS.
Teaching Methods
Frontal lessons in the classroom. Lessons will take place with the help of projections and access to multimedia material freely available online.
The exercises will mainly concern the choice of characterization techniques that allow to determine the chemical nature, structural organization and physical properties of polymers, which are present in objects encountered in everyday life.
Verification of learning
ORAL EXAMINATION.
EXAM WILL START DISCUSSING ABOUT TWO POLYMER ITEMS, WHICH ARE BROUGHT BY THE STUDENT.
TYPICAL QUESTIONS WILL BE THE FOLLOWING:
FROM WHICH POLYMER IS MADE THE ITEM AND WHY?
WHICH TECHNIQUE WOULD YOU USE TO ESTABLISH THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF SUCH POLYMER?
WITH WHICH TECHNIQUE HAS BEEN PRODUCED THE ITEM?
WITH WHAT TYPE OF POLYMERIZATION THE POLYMER WAS OBTAINED?
WHAT ARE USEFUL CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THIS ITEM?
Texts
SLIDES PRESENTED AT LESSON ARE PROVIDED IN THE FORM OF POWER-POINT FILES, WHOSE TITLES ARE LISTED BELOW:
INTRODUCTION. MOLECULAR MASSES. CRYSTALLINITY. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES. MAIN CLASSES OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS. CHAIN POLYMERIZATIONS. ZIEGLER-NATTA CATALYST. STEP POLYMERIZATIONS. CHARACTERIZATIONS. INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION DATA.

THE USE OF THE WEB SITE MACROGALLERIA IS ALSO SUGGESTED.
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