GEOMATICS

Margherita FIANI GEOMATICS

0612500018
DIPARTIMENTO DI INGEGNERIA CIVILE
CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
2014/2015

OBBLIGATORIO
YEAR OF COURSE 3
YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2012
PRIMO SEMESTRE
CFUHOURSACTIVITY
660LESSONS
Objectives
A SUCCESSFUL LEARNER FROM THIS COURSE WILL HAVE ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE OF THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL USE OF BOTH THE TOPOGRAPHICAL INSTRUMENTATION USED TO MEASURE ANGLES, DISTANCES AND DIFFERENCE OF HEIGHT AND THE SATELLITE POSITIONING SYSTEMS. IN PARTICULAR, THROUGH THIS COURSE THE STUDENT LEARNS THE FUNDAMENTALS OF LAND SURVEYING TOWARD THE SATELLITE BASED AND TERRESTRIAL SURVEYING SYSTEMS FOR PRECISE POSITIONING.
THE STUDENT WILL HAVE THE FUNDAMENTAL KNOWLEDGE ON GEODESY, REFERENCE AND COORDINATE SYSTEMS, STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF OBSERVATIONS AND CARTOGRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS.
Prerequisites
IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE THE GOALS A GOOD UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONCEPTS LEARNED IN THE ACADEMIC COURSES OF MATEMATICA I AND II AND PHYSICS IS REQUIRED (EVEN IF THERE IS NO FORMAL OBLIGATION).
Contents
INTRODUCTION:
PRINCIPLES OF SURVEY. DEFINITIONS. MEASUREMENT AND THEIR UNITS. PRECISION AND ACCURACY IN SURVEYING.
GEODESY:
SHAPE OF THE EARTH. EARTH GRAVITY FIELD. EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES. GEOID. DEFINITION OF HEIGHT. REFERENCE ELLIPSOID. GEOID UNDULATIONS. COORDINATE SYSTEMS: NATURAL, GEOCENTRIC, ELLIPSOIDAL. GEOMETRY OF THE ELLIPSOID OF ROTATION. NORMAL SECTIONS. PRINCIPAL CURVATURES. GEODESIC. REFERENCE SURFACES USED TO APPROXIMATE THE ELLIPSOID. GEODETIC NETWORKS AND DATUMS. HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL DATUM. DATUMS USED IN ITALY. GEODETIC, ASTRONOMICAL, CARTESIAN GEOCENTRIC, CARTESIAN LOCAL COORDINATES. COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS. TRANSFORMATIONS BETWEEN DATUMS. PRACTICAL GEODETIC PROBLEMS.
THEORY OF ERRORS AND STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF OBSERVATIONS:
TYPES OF MEASUREMENT ERRORS: GROSS, SYSTEMATIC AND RANDOM. PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS. NORMAL (GAUSSIAN) DISTRIBUTION. ESTIMATION OF CHARACTERISTIC PARAMETERS OF A DISTRIBUTION. CONFIDENCE INTERVALS. STANDARDIZED VARIABLES. TWO-DIMENSIONAL CONTINUOUS RANDOM VARIABLES. COVARIANCE AND CORRELATION COEFFICIENT. PROPAGATION OF VARIANCE-COVARIANCE. APPLICATIONS TO SURVEYING PROBLEMS. METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES. ADJUSTMENT WITH THE METHOD OF INDIRECT OBSERVATIONS.
CARTOGRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS:
THE PROBLEM OF MAP PROJECTIONS. DEFORMATION MODULES. ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO MAP PROJECTIONS. CLASSIFICATION OF MAP PROJECTIONS. CONFORMAL PROJECTIONS. THE CONFORMAL GAUSS MAP AND ITS GEODETIC USE. CONTRACTED COORDINATES AND MODULES EXPRESSIONS. THE ITALIAN OFFICIAL CARTOGRAPHY. COORDINATES MEASUREMENT ON THE MAP OF ITALY AT THE SCALE OF 1:25000. THE UTM-UPS MAPPING SYSTEM.
SURVEYING:
NATIONAL GEODETIC NETWORKS: PLANIMETRIC, LEVELING, IGM95 NETWORKS. REFERENCE, THICKENING AND LOCAL NETWORKS. PLANIMETRIC SURVEY, REDUCTION OF DISTANCES TO THE REFERENCE SURFACE. MAIN SURVEYING SCHEMES: TRIANGULATION, INTERSECTION AND RADIATION METHODS, OPEN AND CLOSED TRAVERSES, DETAILED SURVEY. VERTICAL SURVEY: ORTHOMETRIC AND NORMAL HEIGHTS, REFERENCE SURFACES. TRIGONOMETRIC AND GEOMETRIC LEVELING: SCHEME, INSTRUMENTATION, ACCURACY. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF GPS SURVEYING, SESSIONS AND INDEPENDENT BASELINES, BASELINES COMPUTATION, TRANSFORMATION IN THE NATIONAL REFERENCE SYSTEM. DESIGN, PLANNING, MATERIALIZATION, SURVEYING AND ADJUSTMENT OF PLANIMETRIC, LEVELING AND GPS NETWORKS.
INSTRUMENTATION AND OPERATIONAL METHODS:
MEASURE OF ANGLES. THEODOLITES. MAIN COMPONENTS: TELESCOPE, VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL CIRCLES, CIRCLE READING AND OPTICAL MICROMETER, OPTICAL PLUMB. SETTING UP. READING METHOD OF AZIMUTH ANGLES. BESSEL’S METHOD. ZENITH ANGLES. ELECTRONIC THEODOLITES. MEASURE OF DISTANCES. GEODIMETERS: OPERATING PRINCIPLE, FUNDAMENTAL EQUATION, ACCURACY OF A GEODIMETER. TOTAL STATIONS. LEVELING. LEVELS, TYPES OF LEVELS, MAIN COMPONENTS: TELESCOPE, LEVEL PLUMBS, LEVELING SCREWS. BESSEL’S METHOD. INVAR STADIA. GPS: BASIC CONCEPTS, GPS CONSTELLATION AND CONTROL SEGMENT. GPS SIGNAL STRUCTURE. GPS BIASES AND ERRORS. GPS RECEIVERS. WGS84. PSEUDO-RANGE AND CARRIER PHASE MEASUREMENTS. GPS MODERNIZATION. OTHER GNSS SYSTEMS.
Teaching Methods
THE COURSE PROGRAMME IS DELIVERED VIA LECTURES AND PRACTICAL WORKS.
THE PRACTICAL WORK CONSISTS IN CLASSROOM EXERCISES CONCERNING:
- DETERMINATION OF THE COORDINATES OF A POINT ON A IGM MAP ELEMENT
- NUMERICAL EXCERCISES ON METHOD SURVEYING
- PRACTICAL FIELD WORK (OUTDOOR AREAS OF THE CAMPUS) USING BOTH TRADITIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS (LEVELS, THEODOLITES, TOTAL STATIONS) AND SATELLITE ONES (GNSS).
Verification of learning
THE EXAM AT THE END OF THE COURSE AIMS TO ASSESS THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE LEARNING OBJECTIVES. IT CONSISTS OF: A WRITTEN EXAM (NUMERICAL EXERCISE ON A SCHEME SURVEY), A PRACTICAL TEST (READING OF THE COORDINATES OF A POINT ON AN IGM MAP ELEMENT) AND AN ORAL INTERVIEW ON ALL TOPICS COVERED DURING THE COURSE.
Texts
LECTURE NOTES FROM THE COURSE TEACHER
ADDITIONAL TEXTS:
G. INGHILLERI, L. SOLAINI. TOPOGRAFIA. LEVROTTO & BELLA, 1997.
G. FOLLONI. PRINCIPI DI TOPOGRAFIA – PATRON, 1982
G. BEZOARI, C. MONTI, A. SELVINI. TOPOGRAFIA GENERALE. UTET, MILANO, 2002
B. HOFMANN-WELLENHOF, H. LICHTENEGGER, J. COLLINS. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM: THEORY AND PRACTICE. SPRINGER-VERLAG, 1997.
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