General Pathology and Microbiology

Roberta TARALLO General Pathology and Microbiology

1012400007
DIPARTIMENTO DI MEDICINA, CHIRURGIA E ODONTOIATRIA "SCUOLA MEDICA SALERNITANA"
EQF6
MIDWIFERY
2021/2022

OBBLIGATORIO
YEAR OF COURSE 1
YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2013
SECONDO SEMESTRE
CFUHOURSACTIVITY
1PATOLOGIA GENERALE E MICROBIOLOGIA - MOD. PATOLOGIA GENERALE
224LESSONS
2PATOLOGIA GENERALE E MICROBIOLOGIA - MOD. PATOLOGIA CLINICA
112LESSONS
3PATOLOGIA GENERALE E MICROBIOLOGIA - MOD. MICROBIOLOGIA E MICROBIOLOGIA CLINICA
112LESSONS
4PATOLOGIA GENERALE E MICROBIOLOGIA - MOD. MEDICINA DI LABORATORIO
224LESSONS
Objectives
THE CLASS OF GENERAL PATHOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY IS DIVIDED IN 4 MODULES. THE COURSE PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH THE NECESSARY KNOWLEDGE FOR THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE HUMAN DISEASES AND THEIR BASIC CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS. ADDITIONAL AIM OF THE COURSE IS TO PROVIDE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BASES RESPONSIBLE FOR MICROBIAL ACTIVITY, MICRO-ORGANISM /GUESTS INTERACTIONS AND RELATED DIAGNOSTIC-CLINICAL ASPECTS. FINALLY, THE COURSE AIMS AT PROVIDING THE STUDENT WITH THE NECESSARY TOOLS TO RECOGNIZE THE MAIN BIOMARKERS TO DETERMINE ONGOING PATHOLOGIES.
IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE DUBLIN DESCRIPTORS, AT THE END OF THE CLASS AND TO PASS THE EXAM, THE STUDENT MUST BE ABLE TO:
• HAVE ACHIEVED KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF THE MAIN PROCESSES IN GENERAL PATHOLOGY, CLINICAL PATHOLOGY, CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND LABORATORY MEDICINE. KNOWING THE STANDARD VALUES OF ROUTINE EXAMINATIONS AND KNOWING HOW TO DIFFERENTIATE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL PICTURES. KNOWING HOW TO PROPERLY INTERPRET LABORATORY TESTS IN THE CONTEXT OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS.
• APPLY THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE TO THE CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FIELD, KNOWING HOW TO RECOGNIZE THE GENERAL DIAGNOSTIC ASPECTS OF BIOCHEMICAL, HAEMATOLOGICAL AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES. DISCUSS AND PERFORM CORRELATIONS ON SIMPLE DATA OR HYPOTHESES.
• KNOWING HOW TO INDEPENDENTLY AND CRITICALLY EVALUATE ANY DIFFERENT OPINIONS PRESENT IN CERTAIN TOPICS COVERED DURING THE COURSE. RECOGNIZE THE FUNDAMENTAL ROLE OF CORRECT THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE SUBJECT IN CLINICAL PRACTICE AND IN THE FUTURE OBSTETRIC PROFESSION.
• KNOWING HOW TO PRESENT THE ARGUMENTS ORALLY IN AN ORGANIZED WAY AND WITH SEMANTIC APPROPRIATENESS AND IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE TOPIC OF DISCUSSION. AT THE SAME TIME BEING ABLE TO COMMUNICATE CRITICALLY WITH THEIR PEERS ON THE TOPICS STUDIED AND TO SUPPORT INTERDISCIPLINARY ARGUMENTS.
• RECOGNIZE THE IMPORTANCE AND SPECTRUM OF POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS OF THE SKILLS ACQUIRED IN THE FUTURE PROFESSIONAL CAREER.
Prerequisites
BASIC BIOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE CONCERNING METABOLISM AND CELL SUBSTRUCTURE. BASIC BIOCHEMICAL KNOWLEDGE REGARDING THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE MAIN CLASSES OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES.
Contents
GENERAL PATHOLOGY MODULE:
DEFINITION OF DISEASE, CONCEPT OF HOMEOSTASIS. CELL ADAPTATIONS: HYPERPLASIA, HYPERTROPHY AND METAPLASIA. ANGIOGENESIS AND WOUND HEALING. STUDY OF BLOOD GROUPS. GENETICS OF BLOOD GROUPS AND THEIR DETERMINATION.
HEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE, DEFINITION AND STUDY OF ANEMIA. HEMOSTASIS AND THROMBOSIS. IMMUNITY AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGY. NATURAL IMMUNITY, INNATE AND ACQUIRED. MHC SYSTEM. AUTOIMMUNITY. NATURAL AND ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCIES. ACUTE AND CHRONIC INFLAMMATION. ETIOLOGY OF FEVER. NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC IMBALANCES
DEFINITION OF CELL DAMAGE. NECROSIS, APOPTOSIS AND AUTOPHAGIA, AND RELATED MOLECULAR MECHANISMS. CANCERS. GENESIS OF TUMORS, DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BENIGN AND MALIGNANT TUMORS, TUMOR MARKERS AND THEIR DEFINITIONS.
MODULE OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY: HEMOCHROMOCYTOMETRIC EXAMINATION, MORPHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF BLOOD CELLS, HEMATOLOGICAL ANALYZERS, CONTAGLOBULES, DIFFERENTIAL USE OF VARIOUS ANTICOAGULANTS, PERIPHERAL BLOOD STRIP. TRANSFUSIONAL MEDICINE: GROUP AB0, RH TYPING, DIRECT AND INDIRECT COOMBS TEST. DEFINITION AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF ANEMIA, IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA, THALASSEMIA, HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES AND SCREENING TEST, HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS, HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. METABOLISM OF IRON, SIDEREMIA, FERRITIN, TOTAL IRON-BINDING CAPACITY (TIBC), TRANSFERRIN AND SATURATION OF TRANSFERRIN, APTOGLOBIN. THE LABORATORY IN THE EVALUATION OF THE HEMOSTATIC FUNCTION AND THE THROMBOTIC RISK: FORMATION OF THE CLOT AND FIBRINOLYSIS, HEMORRAGIC DISEASES, THROMBOTIC DISEASES, QUALI-QUANTITATIVE ALTERATIONS OF THE PLATELETS S AND MAIN LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS.
BACTERIOLOGY:

BACTERIAL CELL: MORPHOLOGY, COMPOSITION, STRUCTURE. BACTERIAL GROWTH AND METABOLISM. BACTERIAL GENETICS: GENOME, PLASMIDS, GENE TRANSFER. THE PATHOGENIC ACTION OF BACTERIA: PATHOGENESIS, ADHESION, SECRETION, INVASION, TOXINS. VACCINES. DISINFECTION, STERILIZATION. ANTIBIOTICS. STREPTOCOCCI-STAPHYLOCOCCI, MYCOBACTERIA, ENTEROBACTERIA, VIBRIONI-CAMPYLOBACTER-HELICOBACTER, NEISSERIE, CHLAMYDIA-MYCOPLASMAS.

VIROLOGY:

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF VIRAL COMPONENTS. CLASSIFICATION, NUCLEIC ACID, CAPSID AND ENVELOPE, VIRAL REPLICATION, ADSORPTION, PENETRATION, UNCOATING, SYNTHESIS OF NUCLEIC ACID AND VIRAL PROTEINS, DNA VIRUSES, RNA VIRUS REPLICATION STRATEGIES, ASSEMBLY AND MATURATION, RELEASE. VIRUSES: HEPATITIS, RETROVIRUS, HIV, HPV, HERPES, PICORNAVIRIDAE, ENTEROVIRUS, FLAVIVIRIDAE. PARAMYXOVIRIDAE, MORBILLIVIRUS - MEASLES VIRUS, ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. PARASITOLOGY: NOTES ON PARASITES. HELMINTHS, MALARIA.
LABORATORY MEDICINE MODULE: BIOMARKERS, DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION. BIOLOGICAL MATRICES. VALIDATION OF METHODOLOGIES IN LABORATORY MEDICINE. CLINICAL PERFORMANCE OF DIAGNOSTIC TESTS. MAIN TECHNIQUES IN LABORATORY MEDICINE. SERUM BIOMARKERS OF LIVER AND BILIARY TRACT DISORDERS. NEONATAL JITTERUS. KIDNEY FUNCTIONALITY. URINALYSIS. CHEMICAL-PHYSICAL ANALYSIS OF URINE. MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF THE URINARY SEDIMENT. MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF URINE. PANCREATIC ENZYMES AND PANCREATIC DIAGNOSTICS. SCREENING AND DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETES MELLITUS. GESTATIONAL DIABETES. EXAMINATION OF GASTRIC FUNCTIONALITY. INTESTINAL ABSORPTION BIOMARKERS. BIOMARKERS OF INFLAMMATORY PATHOLOGY. METABOLIC DISEASES. PERINATAL SCREENING. PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS MARKER, PHYSIOLOGICAL PREGNANCY MARKER AND BIRTH. MARKERS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS IN PREGNANCY. MARKERS OF FETAL SUFFERING. NEONATAL METABOLIC SCREENING.
Teaching Methods
LECTURES
Verification of learning
THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE TEACHING OBJECTIVES IS CERTIFIED BY PASSING AN ORAL EXAM WITH AN EVALUATION IN THIRTIETHS. THE EXAM, AS A WHOLE, MAKES IT POSSIBLE TO ASCERTAIN BOTH THE CAPACITY FOR KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING, AND THE ABILITY TO APPLY THE SKILLS ACQUIRED, BOTH THE ABILITY TO EXHIBIT, AND THE ABILITY TO LEARN AND DEVELOP SOLUTIONS INDEPENDENTLY. ALL THE PROFESSORS WILL PARTICIPATE IN THE OVERALL COLLECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE STUDENT'S PROFIT.

Texts
- AA VV PATOLOGIA GENERALE E FISIOPATOLOGIA, IDELSON – GNOCCHI
- ROBBINS, KUMAE &KLATT- LE BASI PATOLOGICHE DELLE MALATTIE, EDRA MASSON.
- MICROBIOLOGIA MEDICA, BATTERIOLOGIA E VIROLOGIA DI MARIA PIA CONTE, PAOLA MASTROMARINO. SOCIETÀ EDITRICE ESCULAPIO.

ELEMENTI DI BIOCHIMICA CLINICA E MEDICINA DI LABORATORIO. MARCELLO CIACCIO. EDISES EDIZIONI.

TEACHING MATERIALS: SLIDES OF THE LECTURES
More Information
THE OFFICIAL TEACHING LANGUAGE IS ITALIAN. LESSONS WILL BE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL "SAN GIOVANNI DI DIO E RUGGI D'ARAGONA" IN SALERNO.
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